Discussion on fire safety and preventive measures

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On the fire safety and preventive measures of chemical enterprises

Guannan County, where the author is located, is a poverty-stricken county in the province, and its economic development is seriously lagging behind. In this case, in order to promote economic development, the county government has increased efforts to attract investment in recent years, in which chemical enterprises account for a large proportion, and a chemical park has been specially established in Dugou port town, Guannan county to focus on the production of chemical enterprises. However, the production of the chemical industry itself faces important problems in safety production and environmental protection. The raw materials and products of chemical enterprises involve a wide range and many kinds, and most of them are flammable, explosive and toxic substances. The production process of chemical enterprises is complex, the process is diverse, and the operation control conditions are strict. With the rapid development of the chemical industry, some enterprises pursue economic benefits too much, In a large part, the production safety of enterprises is ignored and the capital investment in safety is reduced, which leads to these problems becoming a major obstacle to the continued rapid development of the chemical industry. In order to improve the fire fighting and emergency rescue capabilities of the fire forces, effectively control and prevent the occurrence of safety accidents in chemical enterprises, the author took advantage of the convenience of engaging in fire supervision by building a 35 Mu plant in Guannan county and in Dezhou Huadian in 2012, went deep into chemical enterprises to conduct research, carefully studied the characteristics of chemical enterprises, and explored their preventive measures. After half a year of research, the author believes that chemical enterprises have the following dangers:

first, there are many dangerous substances in the enterprise, and the fire risk level is high, which is very easy to cause heavy casualties and property damage after an accident

as the chemical raw materials and chemical products produced, processed and stored by chemical enterprises are highly flammable, explosive and toxic, the situation after a fire or leakage accident is complex, explosion, re ignition and re explosion, and the diffusion range is large and fast, which is very easy to lead to three-dimensional, large-area, multi ignition and other forms of combustion. It will not only lead to production stoppage, equipment damage, failure to produce products, overstock of raw materials, interrupt the social production chain and reduce social productivity, but also cause heavy casualties and property losses, and even affect the society, resulting in incalculable losses and irretrievable effects

II. Enterprises use many dangerous substances, and accidents are easy to cause environmental pollution and fire

in chemical production, it is inevitable to use a large number of chemical products, intermediates, by-products and impurities contained therein, as well as the "three wastes" emissions in production. These are industrial poisons with toxicity, corrosiveness and fire risk. Once leaked into the atmosphere or discharged into rivers, it is easy to cause a large number of casualties and atmospheric and water pollutants touch the use of plastics, such as chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosphorus containing sewage, etc. After the leakage accident of some highly toxic chemical raw materials, it does great harm to the atmosphere and water, has a lasting impact, and is difficult to control. Such as cyanogens, nitriles, organic phosphates, etc. These articles generally have low ignition point, easy to ignite, spontaneous combustion, inflammable and explosive in the presence of acid and oxidant, and are highly toxic in themselves or combustion products, which often cause fire and explosion accidents outside

third, there are many dangerous substances, the fire situation is complex, and the fire fighting and rescue is difficult, which increases the risk of rescue personnel

fire in chemical enterprises is only applicable to the determination of high surface finish of test pieces. Generally speaking, the fire situation is very complex, often accompanied by explosion, flash combustion, secondary explosion, or explosion after combustion, or the phenomenon of alternating combustion and explosion. Explosions are physical and chemical, or explosions of two thicknesses or diameters occur successively. Coupled with the high calorific value of chemical products, the thermal radiation generated after combustion can quickly heat the surrounding adjacent container equipment, resulting in the rapid pressurization, volatilization and decomposition of chemical products in adjacent container pipelines, adding dangerous conditions for the expansion of the fire

in addition, chemical fires often change too fast, and various dangerous situations emerge in endlessly. Toxic gases will seriously threaten the safety of fire-fighting and rescue personnel; Corrosive substances will burn the skin of rescuers and damage fire-fighting equipment; The collapse of buildings will cause serious consequences such as casualties of rescue personnel. All these have brought great difficulties to the fire fighting and rescue work

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